Until recently, people believed that a baby's sex was determined by the mother's cells, or, at least, that the sex was determined by cells from both the mother and the father. But in the Qur'an there is a different account of this matter; it says that maleness and femaleness are created from sperm entering the womb:
He (God) has created both sexes, male and female, from a drop of semen which has been ejected.
(Qur'an, 53: 45-46)
The sex of a baby depends on which male chromosome unites with the female egg. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes (that is, 46 individual chromosomes), 2 are called sex chromosomes. These two chromosomes are designated as XY in the male and XX in the female. The Y chromosome carries male genes, the X chromosome, female genes. The formation of a human body begins with the union of one of each of these chromosomes, which are present in pairs in males and females (left). If the X chromosome in the female unites with the sperm containing the X chromosome in the male, the baby will be a girl; if it unites with the sperm containing the Y chromosome in the male, the baby will be a boy. (Gerard J. Tortora, Introduction to the Human Body: Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, pp. 569-570).21
The truth of this revelation of the Qur'an has been confirmed scientifically by developments in genetics and microbiology. It is now understood that sex is determined by the male sperm and that the female egg plays no role in this determination. What determines sex is chromosomes. Of the 46 chromosomes that determine the human structure, two are called sex chromosomes. These two chromosomes are labelled XY in males and XX in females, because the respective chromosomes resemble these letters. The Y chromosome carries male genes and the X chromosome carries female genes.
he formation of a human being begins with the union of one of each of these chromosomes which are present in pairs in the male and female. During ovulation in the female, the sex cell divides into two, each carrying the X chromosome. In males, the sex cell divides into two sperm, one carrying the X chromosome and the other carrying the Y chromosome. If the X chromosome in the female unites with a sperm carrying the X chromosome, the baby will be a girl; if it unites with a sperm containing the Y chromosome, the baby will be a boy.
That is, the sex of the baby depends on which chromosome in the male unites with the female egg.
Certainly, until the science of genetics appeared, that is, until the twentieth century, these facts were unknown. In many cultures it was generally believed that a baby's sex was determined by the female. Precisely for this reason, a woman who gave birth to a girl was condemned. However, in the Qur'an, 13 centuries before the discovery of genes, this superstition was rejected by the revelation that the origins of sex do not come from the female, but from the semen of the male.
The Qur'an is the word of God, the Lord of all the worlds. Such scientific miracles are among the evidence of this fact.
It is a Book We have sent down to you, full of blessing, so let people of intelligence ponder its Signs and take heed. (Qur'an, 38: 29)
13 Guyton&Hall, Human Physiology and Mechanisms of Disease, 6. baskı, 1997, ABD, s. 659
14 Laurence Pernoud, J’attends un enfant, Pierre Horay, Paris, 1995, s.107
15 Prof. Dr. Ahmet Noyan, Yaşamda ve Hekimlikte Fizyoloji, Ankara, Mart 1998, 10. baskı, s. 1119
16 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1006
17 Lennart Nilsson, A Child is Born, Delacorte Press, NY, 1977,s. 22
18 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1005
19 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1007
20 Solomon, Berg, Martin, Villee, Biology, Saunders College Publishing, ABD, 1993, s. 1056