When the sperm leave the male body in the semen, they are not completely ready to fertilise the egg. Until they leave the male body, their movement is controlled by basic secretions in the area where they are stored. For this reason, when the semen is first formed and reaches the female body, the sperm cannot perform their fertilising function. How, then does it come about that the sperm, when separated from the male reproductive system, acquire the ability to fertilise the egg?
In order for the process of fertilisation to be facilitated, a number of systems in the female body must be made ready. At this point, some fluids secreted in the female reproductive system come to the help of the sperm by increasing the sperm's ability to fertilise the egg. These are some of the changes that take place in the sperm after they reach the female body:
1. The fluids secreted in the woman's uterus and fallopian tubes contain a chemical that destroys those factors that retard the movements of the sperm in the male reproductive tract. In this way, the movement of the sperm that reach the female reproductive tract is increased.
2. The fluids in the male reproductive tract (seminiferous tubules, in the epididymis, and in the vas deferens) all contain a high level of cholesterol. The cholesterol is continually donated to the cellular membrane covering the acrosome, toughening this membrane and preventing release of the enzymes prematurely. But from the point of view of the sperm's ability to fertilise the egg, this particularity is detrimental. For this reason, the sperm which pass into the female body must be rescued from its effects. As in the millions of details in the stages of human reproduction, a special system has also been prepared for this purpose. The sperm, which enter the female body later join the fluid in the uterus. And this fluid reduces the level of cholesterol contained in the semen, which also contains the sperm, thereby making the head of the sperm (acrosome) more fragile. So, when the sperm reaches the egg, the enzymes inside the acrosome can come out easily and will assure the fertilisation of the egg by their penetration of the egg membrane.
3. The permeability of the membrane in the head of the sperm which enters the female body increases in relation to calcium ions. With the entrance of a great quantity of calcium into the sperm cell, the movement of the sperm increases. The whip-like tail (flagellum) which causes the movement of the sperm changes its former weak undulations and begins to make strong movements, thereby facilitating its ability to reach the egg.12
Without doubt, for those who think carefully, there are very important indications to be found in the creation of the sperm in such a way as to be so harmonious and complementary to the female body. The fact that the sperm and the female body cooperate to bring about the same miracle, independently of each other, is indicative of a great conscious intelligence. The sperm, before entering the female body and while they are still in the male body, take measures to produce what is required to correct their deficiencies that might create problems for them in the female body. A special environment is prepared in the female body to increase the movement of a single sperm that is even too small to be seen by the naked eye. It is as if the female body knew that the sperm's journey would be very long and that it would need energy to complete it quickly; it is as if it knew what kind of chemical composition would penetrate the egg, guessed that the sperm had deficiencies in this regard and determined that cholesterol was the cause of them, and then produced something to neutralize the cholesterol, thus producing an environment in which the egg could most easily be penetrated. And it would do all of this on its own!
It should be remembered that what is summarized above is merely a small part of the steps from the sperm's entrance into the body to the fertilisation of the egg. These steps are completed as a result of thousands of ever more complex chemical reactions in which several proteins, enzymes and fluids are also involved. But it is especially important to remember that it is not our intention here in enumerating these details simply to impart scientific knowledge; our intention is to point out the truth that, contrary to what the evolutionists claim, the formation of a human being is too complex ever to have been the product of blind chance: it is the result rather of the flawless operation of complementary, interdependent and intricate systems. It is not possible for a human being, or even one single enzyme or molecule that activates the sperm, to come into being by chance.
On this point we have talked about how a sperm cell produced in the male body acquires the ability to fertilise an egg with the help of chemical substances in the female body. Now let's pause and think: Could such a complex system come into being in stages by chance as the theory of evolution claims? Certainly, such a thing is impossible, but once more let us consider such a scenario.
A sperm produced by chance in the male body first comes into contact with a female body. Would it, as a matter of chance, find the fluids that allow the sperm to acquire its ability to fertilise, all ready and waiting for it? If not, upon the failure of the first sperm reaching the female reproductive system to perform its fertilisation function, would the female reproductive cells make a decision and begin to produce the required chemical substances?
It is beyond doubt that these two examples do not accord well with logic or intelligence; they are scenarios that could never happen. In the examples we have given on this point, one truth confronts us: all these systems are each a proof of the endless knowledge and power of God Who created everything. God has created in the depths of the human body wonders that are too small for the eye to see and beyond the capacity of the human mind to comprehend. By this, He points out that there are proofs for faith that occur in the body, which are totally independent of human will and knowledge. And He reminds us that His dominion is over everything, including human beings themselves.
Truly, your Lord is vast in forgiveness. He knew you well when He created you of earth, and when you were embryos in your mothers' wombs. So do not claim purity for yourselves. He knows best those who guard themselves against evil. (Qur'an, 53: 32)
3 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1003
4 Guyton&Hall, Human Physiology and Mechanisms of Disease, 6. baskı, 1997, ABD, s. 649
5 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1004
6 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1005
7 Vander, Sherman, Luciano, İnsan Fizyolojisi, Bilimsel ve Teknik Yayınları Çeviri Vakfı, 1994, s. 654
8 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1006
9 Prof. Dr. Ahmet Noyan, Yaşamda ve Hekimlikte Fizyoloji, Ankara, Mart 1998, 10. baskı, s. 1113
10 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1005
11 Guyton&Hall, Human Physiology and Mechanisms of Disease, 6. baskı, 1997, ABD, s. 12; Gerard J. Tortora, Introduction to the Human Body The Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, Biological Science Textbooks, 1997, s. 527
12 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1007