In the cells of the body two kinds of division take place. Of these, the kind of division called "mitosis" occurs in all the body's cells. During mitosis, one cell gives rise to two genetically identical daughter cells. As a result of this division, the mother cell divides to form two daughter cells, each containing the same number and kind of chromosomes as the mother cell.
That is God, your Lord. There is no god but Him, the Creator of everything. So worship Him. He is responsible for everything. (Qur'an, 6: 102)
Here, it is necessary to make one point clear at the outset. If the reproductive cells divided in this way and if they had the same number of chromosomes as the other cells in the body, it would not be possible for a human being to become a human being because, as we explained above, a birth resulting from the combination of the separate 46 chromosomes of the mother and father would produce a baby with 96 chromosomes causing a complete distortion of the human make-up. But because of the incomparable design of our bodies this does not happen. The kind of division that happens in the formation of the reproductive cells is different; it is called "meiosis". In the course of "meiosis" the number of chromosomes in the cells is reduced by half, that is from 46 to 23.
Stages in the Formation of the Egg and Sperm Cells
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As a result of the various divisions of the primary egg cells in the ovaries, three small secondary polar cells and one "ootid" are produced. The small cells die and the larger one forms the egg. If the cells produced were all of the same size, the zygote produced after fertilisation would not receive enough nourishment.
The stages in the formation of the egg, i.e. the female reproductive cell, is illustrated on the left. The egg is formed after the primary egg cells in the ovaries (oogonia) undergo a series of divisions. In the male, sperm is produced when the primary sperm cells in the testes (spermatogonia) divide. From the moment of their first division, the reproductive cells function under supervision. When this harmony among the elements that compose the human body is considered, (cells, enzymes, hormones), every thinking person will understand that this system could not come about by chance. It is God Who creates human beings, and the extraordinary things that happen in our bodies are examples of His creative art.
Before these divisions are complete, the reproductive cells have not come to maturity. In every male and every female body there is a mechanism that brings these cells to maturity and prepares them for the difficult journey ahead of them. The male and female reproductive systems, which are completely unknown to one another and are very different in many ways, try to make the cells they produce ready for one another.
In the following pages a detailed account of this topic will be given. But, as you read these pages, there is an important point that you should notice. From the very first moment that the reproductive cells begin to divide, they are subject to a definite plan. Nothing is random. The cells divide exactly as necessary and maintain the required number of chromosomes without any change or deficiency throughout the process. Every organ, every cell of which it is composed, and the organelles which make up the cells, function in perfect harmony. In addition, the molecules that make up the enzymes and the hormones which play a role in the functioning of the body, and the atoms that make up these molecules, are part of a highly complex information system, which tells them when they will have to start their work, and they are never at a loss to know how and to what degree it is necessary to exert their influence.
Cells, enzymes, hormones in short, the harmony that exists among all the parts of the body is certainly something worth thinking about.
The fact that a molecule and the atoms that make up this molecule can make a plan, and act according to it; that one part can give a command and another part obey it, understand it and put it into effect is too extraordinary a thing to be the product of chance. The fact that this has happened and still happens without exception in the bodies of the millions of human beings who have ever lived makes it all the more extraordinary that the same harmony operates perfectly in every individual. It is clear that this cannot be by random chance, and that a supreme, conscious intelligence is responsible for giving their special qualities to the microscopic cells that make up our bodies, as well as to the hormones that these cells produce, to the enzymes and the hundreds of thousands of other tiny elements in the human system. It is obvious that every part of every stage of the whole system that functions in the human body is beyond human comprehension and that it is the work of an incomparably powerful intelligence.
This supreme intelligence belongs to God, Who has created the whole universe down to its smallest detail. In the Qur'an, God says that there are no other gods besides Him:
God, there is no god but Him, the Living, the Self-Sustaining. He is not subject to drowsiness or sleep. Everything in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them but they cannot grasp any of His knowledge save what He wills. His throne encompasses the heavens and the earth and their preservation does not tire Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent.(Qur'an, 2: 255)
1 Guyton&Hall, Tıbbi Fizyoloji, Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri, İstanbul, 1996, 9. baskı, s. 1005, 1017
2 Keith L. Moore, The Developing Human - Clinically Oriented Embryology, W. B. Saunders Company, 1983, Canada, s. 141