Friday, August 31, 2012

Nonsensical Nature of the Molecular Homology Thesis, The

Evolutionists point to different living things having similar DNA codes or protein structures and interpret this as evidence that these species evolved from some common ancestor. For instance, evolutionist sources often say that there is a great similarity between the DNA of humans and apes, which they offer as evidence of an evolutionary link between the two. (See The Ape-Human Genetic Similarity Lie.)

First off, it's only to be expected that living things on Earth should have DNA structures similar to one another. Their basic vital functions are the same, and since they all-humans included-have physical bodies, one cannot expect human beings to have a DNA structure totally different from other living things. Like other organisms, our bodies develop by consuming proteins, blood flows through their bodies, and we produce energy at every moment by using of oxygen.
Therefore, the fact that living things are genetically similar cannot be used to argue that they evolved from a common ancestor. If evolutionists wish to verify the theory of evolution from a common ancestor, they have to demonstrate a line of descent on the molecular level. Yet evolutionists have no such concrete finding.
In fact, when the data obtained as a result of the analysis of DNA and chromosomes belonging to various species and classes are compared, it clearly emerges that any similarities or differences are incompatible with any evolutionary logic or link. According to the evolutionist thesis, there must be a gradual increase in species' complexity, and so is also to be expected that the number of chromosomes establishing this genetic information will gradually increase. However, the data actually obtained show that this is a mere fantasy.
For example, although a tomato has 24 chromosomes, the copepod crab-an organism with far more complex systems-has only six. The single-celled creature Euglena has 45 chromosomes, compared to the alligator, which has only 32. In addition, Radiolaria, microscopic organisms, have more than 800 chromosomes.
Theodosius Dobzhansky, a famous evolutionary theoretician, says that this unregulated relationship between living things and their DNAs is a major problem that evolution cannot explain:
More complex organisms generally have more DNA per cell than do simpler ones, but this rule has conspicuous exceptions. Man is nowhere near the top of the list, being exceeded by Amphiuma (an amphibian),Protopterus (a lungfish), and even ordinary frogs and toads. Why this should be so has long been a puzzle.54
Again according to the evolutionist homology thesis, the number of chromosomes should be expected to increase as living things grow-and to decrease as the organism becomes smaller. The fact is, however, that living things of very different sizes and with very different structures, between which no evolutionary relationship can possibly be claimed, having the same number of chromosomes totally undermines the superficial evolutionist logic built on chromosome similarities between organisms.
To give some examples: both oak trees and Macaques monkeys have 42 chromosomes. The deer mouse has 48 chromosomes, the same number as the gorilla, which is many times larger. Another interesting example is that of the gypsy moth and the donkey, both of which have 62 chromosomes.
Other comparisons at the molecular level also offer examples that make evolutionist interpretations quite meaningless. The more protein strings are analyzed in laboratories, the more unexpected and even astonishing results emerge. For instance, while the human cytochrome-C protein differs from that of a horse by 14 amino acids, it differs from that of a kangaroo by only eight. Analysis of cytochrome-C has shown that tortoises are much closer to human beings than they are to rattlesnakes, even though both are members of the reptile family.
Interpreted from the evolutionist perspective, this produces utterly meaningless results that not even evolutionists can accept, such as tortoises being more closely related to human beings than to snakes.
The difference of 21 amino acids between tortoises and rattlesnakes, which are both members of the reptile class, is significantly greater than that between representatives of very different classes. The above difference, for example, is greater than the difference of 17 amino acids between chickens and eels, the difference of 16 amino acids between horses and sharks, or even the difference of 15 amino acid between dogs and worm flies, which are members of two totally different phyla.
A similar state of affairs also applies to hemoglobin. The sequence of this protein in human beings differs from that in lemurs by 20 amino acids and from that in pigs by only 14. The position is more or less the same for other proteins.55
Evolutionists should therefore conclude that in evolutionary terms, a human being is closer to the kangaroo than the horse or to the pig than the lemur.
Dr. Christian Schwabe is a professor at department of biochemistry at Medical University of South Carolina and a scientist who has devoted many years to seeking evidence of evolution in the molecular sphere. In particular, he has carried out studies on the proteins insulin and relaxin in an attempt to construct evolutionary relationships between living things. Several times, however, he has been forced to admit that he hasn't been able to obtain any evidence for evolution at any point. In one article in Science magazine, he writes:
Molecular evolution is about to be accepted as a method superior to paleontology for the discovery of evolutionary relationships. As a molecular evolutionist, I should be elated. Instead, it seems disconcerting that many exceptions exist to the orderly progression of species as determined by molecular homologies: so many in fact, that I think the exception, the quirks, may carry the more important message.56
Schwabe's research into relaxin produced most interesting results:
Against this background of high variability between relaxins from purportedly closely related species, the relaxins of pig and whale are all but identical. The molecules derived from rats, guinea-pigs, man and pigs are as distant from each other (approximately 55%) . . . Insulin, however, brings man and pig phylogenetically closer together than chimpanzee and man.57
Schwabe states that his comparison of lysozymes, cytochromes and many hormones and amino acid strings revealed unexpected results and abnormalities from the evolutionary point of view. Based on all this evidence, Schwabe maintains that all proteins possess their same, initial structures, without having undergone any evolution-and that, just as with fossils, no intermediate form among molecules has ever been found.
Michael Denton bases this comment on results obtained from the field of molecular biology:
Each class at a molecular level is unique, isolated and unlinked by intermediates. Thus molecules, like fossils have failed to provide the elusive intermediates so long sought by evolutionary biology.58
In short, the homological hypothesis that looks for anatomical or chemical similarities in living things and attempts to portray them as evidence for evolution has been invalidated by the scientific facts.
54. Theodosius Dobzhansky, Genetics of the Evolutionary Process, New York & London: Columbia University Press, 1970, pp. 17-18.
55. Pierre Paul Grassé, Evolution of Living Organisms, New York Academic Press, 1977, p. 194.
56. Christian Schwabe, "On the Validity of Molecular Evolution," Trends in Biochemical Sciences, Vol. 11, July 1986, p. 280.
57. Christian Schwabe, "Theoretical Limitations of Molecular Phylogenetics and the Evolution of Relaxins," Comparative Biochemical Physiology, Vol. 107B, 1974, pp. 171-172.
58. Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, pp. 290-291.

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